China, officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world’s most populous state and the second-largest country by land area.
The country’s major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
One of China’s greatest treasures is her long, rich history. As early as 1.7 million years ago, the earliest humans evolved on this land. The first dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, dates to about the 21st century BC. For 4,000 years, feudalism was the dominant economic and cultural model. Then, in 1911, the revolution led by Sun Yat-sen brought the monarchy to an end. On October 1st, 1949, PRC was founded, fully named the ‘People’s Republic of China’. Since then, this country has developed independently and vigorously. Most recently, reform and opening-up policy has energized life in this country.
The official language in China is Putonghua (meaning common language in Chinese) or Mandarin, which is one of the five working languages at the United Nations.Most of the 55 minority nationalities have their own languages. Cantonese is one of the local dialects of southern China. As a written language, Chinese has been used for 6,000 years.The number of religious worshippers in China is estimated at well over 100 million, most of whom follow Buddhism. Other major religions are Taoism, Islam and Christianity in both its Catholic and Protestant forms.
Chinese arts and crafts, including painting, calligraphy, operas, embroidery and silk are distinctive and unique. Kung Fu, which have only recently begun to enjoy popularity in other parts of the world have been part of Chinese culture for centuries, and Chinese literature is testifies to the country’s rich heritage. And, of course, there is Chinese food, which has been exported to every corner of the globe.Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients,as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.Generally, China’s staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein.
Beijing (formerly romanized as Peking) is the capital of the People’s Republic of China and the world’s third most populous city proper. It is also one of the world’s most populous capital cities.This city is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city. It is also the destination of many international flights arriving in China. It is regarded as the political, educational, and cultural center of China. As the saying goes, one who fails to reach the Great Wall is not a true hero. Without visiting the Great Wall, no trip to this city or the country is complete. The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built, rebuilt and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the northern borders from Xiongnu attacks during various successive dynasties.